Introduction
The basic requirement to make a cake is appearance, with a thin and tender crust, it should be light, eventextured, and pleasant to eat. In the case of fruit cake should be evenly dispersed in the crumb.
Each ingredient of cake has a certain definite function in cake making e.g.
 Flour and egg give structure.
 Sugar, Fat, and Baking powder act as a tenderizing agent.
 Egg and Milk impart liquid to the cake.
Any kind of misbalance in the ingredients of the cake, the resultant product may not be up to the mark, therefore, in order to have consistently good quality cake, it is very important that all the ingredients should be used in a definite proportion and in a definite manner.
The following given cake formula or recipe will give you a clear idea or can be defined in better ways.
Cake Formula
There are Fat Quantity and Sugar Quantity, to make a particular type of cakes, it is important to understand the formula to prepare a cake. Cake formula can be divided in to two main categories subjectively, depending on the quantity of Fat at one side and Sugar on the other.
Fat Quantity.
It differs in:
 Rich formula
 Lean formula
Rich formula
The formula which contains more fat is known as the rich formula. For more quantity of fat much creaming is required which will incorporate more air, a cake with a high percentage of shortening will classify as a rich formula and required less quantity of leavening agent (baking soda, baking powder, yeast) is required. Fat prevents gluten formation & makes the batter more tends hence the quantity of liquid prohibits expansion of cake considering low.
Lean formula
The formula with less content of fat is known as the lean formula. Less fat required less creaming which incorporates less air. Hence the quantity of leavening agents requires is more. Due to less fat, there is a possibility of gluten development during the mixture, which will be slow hence the temperature should be higher for a faster setting.
Sugar Quantity
According to the quantity of sugar, the cake formula can be divided into two types
 High ratio cake
 Low ratio cake
High ratio cake The formula which contains more sugar than flour is known as high ratio cake that is more than 1:1. High sugar helps to retain or hold the moisture/liquid for a longer period, the shelf life is increased. Generally, 25% more sugar gives better results. The quantity of egg should be more about 10% than fat
Chocolate layer cake.
Ingredients Amounts
Sugar 170
Fat 115
Eggs 3no.
Flour 145
Cocoa powder 30
Milk 2 tbsp.
Baking Powder ½ tsp.
Rules
 The weight of the sugar is more than that of flour.
 The weight of the eggs should be more than that of fat.
 The weight of the liquid in eggs and milk or added water should exceed slightly the weight of the sugar
Low ratio cake
The formula which contains an equal proportion of sugar and flour or less sugar than flour is known as low ratio cake. It is the first step in cake manufacturing. There are four main ingredients necessary in the construction of a cake formula. They are flour, fat, eggs, and sugar.
Balancing is observed from four different aspects as follows
 Ingredients that provide strength and structure, are flour and eggs.
 Ingredients which have to carry, they are sugar, fat, milk and fruits.
 Ingredients that have a lifting and opening effect, are sugar, baking powder, and egg.
Plain Sponge cake
Ingredients Amount (g)
Sugar 115
Flour 115
Fat 80
Eggs 2 no.
Milk 2 tbs.
Baking Powder ¼ to ½ tsp.
Rules
 The weight of the sugar equals the weight of flour.
 The weight of fat should equal the weight of the egg.
 The weight of liquid ingredients (egg and milk) should equal the weight of the flour or sugar
This is suitable for creamed cake mixes. This cake has more volume, a porous structure, and a spongy texture than pound cake. I contain egg and fat content is less than pound cake formula.
Derivation of basic cake formula

Pound cake formula
This is the oldest cake formula. The name pound comes from the original fact that specified the use of the four basic ingredients flour, sugar, fat, and eggs which is one pound each. Fat is used for aerating and moistening, flour acts as a dry ingredient.
Rules
 In this formula, the structure provided by the flour and eggs is sufficient to carry fat and sugar. The closing effect of moisture in an egg is balanced by the lifting effect of fat, sugar, and air holding quality of the egg.
 Everyone part of the egg can moisten and leaven one part of the flour and moisten one part of sugar.
 It is known that the maximum ratio of egg to fat 1 ¼:1 without curdling. Any more eggs will toughen the cake.
Disadvantages
 It works out to be expensive when used for commercial baking.
 The cake has low volume, close grain, and heavy texture.

Foam type cake formula
These cakes contain little or no shortening and depend on the air entrapped in the beaten eggs for this leavening. They include food cake, sponge cake, and chiffon cake
3.Angel Food Cake
Ingredients Amount(g)
Egg White 125
Sugar 125
Flour 42
Cream of tartar ½ tsp.
Salt a pinch
4.Fatless Sponge Cake
Ingredients Amount(g)
Whole eggs 4 no.
Sugar 115
Flour 115
Baking Powder ½ tsp
Warm water 30 ml
Rules
 The amount of sugar should equal or slightly exceed the number of whole eggs.
 The combined weights of the liquid in whole eggs and milk or water should exceed the weight of the sugar by a ratio of 1:1.25.
 The weight of the whole eggs should exceed that of flour.
 The combined weight of the eggs and flour should exceed the combined weight of the sugar and liquids other than whole eggs.
The general rule for recipe balancing
 Eggs aerate their own weight of flour. Flour in excess of eggs must be aerated chemically e.g. by baking powder.
 Salt content will vary between 0.8 to 2.0% depending on the quantity of sugar in the formula and the amount of the flavor desired in the product.
 The quantity of sugar is changed according to types along with other factors.
 As sugar increased in the quantity simultaneously egg should also be increased approximately by the same percentage. Because sugar is a tenderizer that makes batter tender to balance these eggs are added which acts as a tougher. Additional eggs give dryness to prevent this fat quantity should be increased.
 When ingredients having more liquid e.g. invert sugar, honey, etc. are replaced in the formula, the other quantity of liquid in the formula should be decreased direct so that the total moisture content of the formula does not change.
 When the coca is used in the formula it is necessary to increase the moisture because of coca acts as a drier. The quantity of fat should be decreased from the formula as coca contain fat.
 When using cocoa, sodium bicarbonate should be used to react with the natural acidity in coca. It imparts leavening action and also darkens the crumb color.
 When only egg white is used, slightly acidic material e.g. cream of tartar, citric acid, acetic acid, or lemon may be used. It improves the air entrapping capacity and makes cake crumb whiter due to bleaching action.
 When the only egg white is used, its quantity should be increased up to 1.25 to 1.30 times more than the whole egg. The quantity of milk should automatically be reduced
 When only egg yolk is to be used, additional moisture should be added, as the moisture content of egg yolk is less than the whole egg.
 When using sugar with low caramel, it is necessary to use the same amount of acid salt (formed by the neutralization of strong acid and weak base) in order to prevent too dark color in the crust.
 In heavily fruited cakes the proportion of flour may be less than necessary in the lightly fruited cake.
 Corn flour, cocoa powder, rice flour, milk powder, and ground almonds count as flour in calculating
 Eggs can moisten equal weight of flour. So an excess of flour is moistened by milk.
 Good quality of fat can take a maximum of 1 ¼ part of eggs without curding.
Summary
 Each ingredient of cake has a certain definite function.
 Sugar, fat, and baking powder act as a tenderizing agent.
 Eggs and milk impart liquid to the cake.
Cake formula
Is a list of ingredients showing the quantities to prepare a cake. It is an accurate record of the quantities of raw materials necessary to make a particular type of cake.
Type of cake formula
 Rich formula
 Lean formula
 High ratio formula
 Low ratio formula
Recipe balancing: Main four aspects
 Ingredients that provide strength and structure: – flour and eggs.
 Ingredients which have to be carried: – sugar, fat, milk and fruit.
 Ingredients which have a lifting effect or opening effect: – sugar, baking powder, egg, and fats.
 Ingredients that have a closing effect: – milk, water, and reconstituted egg.
Depreciation of basic cake formula,
Pound cake formula
Low ratio cake formula.
High ratio cake formula.
Foam type cake formula.
General rules for recipe balancing.
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